October 28, 2016 at 10:12 am #531
This forum is dedicated to your writing on your prospective paper/abstract/bibliography.October 31, 2016 at 8:31 pm #541
There are many times in Callimachus’s works that he references Homer. I’d like to focus specifically the descriptions of Apollo. In Homer’s Hymn to Delian Apollo, he uses such language as “Apollo who shoots afar”, “who delights in arrows”, and “far shooting lord.” In his hymn to Pythian Apollo, he refers to Apollo as “far shooting Apollo”, “worker from afar,” and “far working Apollo.” Callimachus similar language, of “far-shooter” and “shooting swift arrows.” Callimachus uses imagery borrowed from Homer, describing the things of Apollo as golden with the use of the word χρύσεος. However, instead of using long descriptions throughout the poem, Callimachus is short and to the point. There is one little section describing the golden tunic of Apollo, his golden sandals, and everything else golden. Otherwise, there are only a few quick descriptors thrown in there. This reflects Callimachus’s views on how poetry should be written. It should say what it needs to in a little amount of words, and not go repeating itself again and again.
For research so far, I have looked at the different uses of the Epithet Ἑκάεργος (both the Neuter and Feminine forms), and certain verbs associated with this, such as; ἑκατηβόλος, ἑκηβόλος,and ἕκᾰτος. Specifically, I’d like to look into why these words were chosen, as ἑκατηβόλος is used only by Homer, whereas every other author uses ἑκηβόλος, except for Callimachus, who chooses to use ἑκηβολ-ία instead. Basically, I think I would end up looking into the history of these words, or perhaps look into the meter used, to see if the word they chose to use was the only one that fit, or other possible options of picking one over the other.November 2, 2016 at 8:34 am #542
This project sounds very interesting; it demonstrates a very specific approach to a general question. The general question would be, “What is the relationship of Callimachus to Homer?” and the specific question would be, “How does Callimachus use Homeric epithets and/or formulae?” Answering the second question should allow you to begin to answer the first. Great idea.
You’ll need to think about the two methods of composition. Callimachus is no longer using oral, extemporaneous composition as exemplified in Homer. We’re moving to a more literary world–the library and such–as you know.
You will probably have to do some word searches and decide how much of Callimachus you want to work with. Perseus should make this fairly easy. The statistics for Homeric usage should be out there somewhere. I’m not a Homericist, so I don’t know for certain where, but the classic work is by Eugene O’Neill, Jr. (the son of the famous playwright). You might have a look at that, and I’ll see what else I can find. Here’s the citation for the O’Neill article:
“The Localization of Metrical Word-Types in the Greek Hexameter,” Yale Classical Studies 8(1942)103-178.November 2, 2016 at 7:20 pm #543
Do you have a copy of that article? I can’t find it anywhere online.November 4, 2016 at 12:01 pm #548
I’m afraid I don’t have access to an on-line version. Most libraries catalogue Yale Classical Studies as a book in their regular collection. It looks like, however, that Trinity International University, north of Evanston, has a copy of volume 8, if you can make it down there after the Cubs parade is over. 😉
DHSNovember 17, 2016 at 4:23 pm #556
Here is my Research Abstract! Let me know if I should change anything before I send it in.
In Callimachus’s works, many references to Homer are made. In Callimachus’s hymns to the various deities, he models his works off of Homer’s. However, there are certain differences between the two. Callimachus borrows from Homer, but he uses different forms of words. Specifically, Homer uses ἑκατηβόλος to describe far-shooting Apollo. Callimachus differs in this aspect, using ἑκηβόλος to describe Apollo.
My research would consist of finding out why these two forms were used. Perhaps it was due to a change in the spoken or written language over time, or maybe one fit the meter better than the other? In which case, why do they not use both? Callimachus never uses the word ἑκατηβόλος.
For research on this topic, I have looked into the different uses of these two verbs, along with Apollo’s epithet of Ἑκάεργος, and other associated words including ἕκᾰτος and ἑκηβολία. My research will focus mainly on who they were used by and if they were used in reference to Apollo or not. Once narrowed down to specific passages, I would take Meter into account, and see if the metrics fit into why one word may have been chosen over another, and if it’s placement in each line has any effect on the overall meaning of the sentence. For this, I have looked into some of Eugene O’Neill Jr.’s articles on “The Localization of Metrical Word-Types in the Greek Hexameter” and “The Importance of Final Syllables in Greek Verse.” These readings focus on the function of words in a sentence, and localization of words. These ideas could have factored into the change over time, as Homer’s works seem to be less localized than Callimachus’s. Callimachus himself maybe have been a leading influence in this idea, as he strongly encouraged poems that were short and sweet.
I’m hoping that this research will shed light on the different connotations of these words, and why one was chosen by one author, and one another. It could be a change in how things were spoken over time, but I suspect there is a deeper meaning.
Sources that I have/am interested in reading for further research:
Allen, Frederic De Forest. 1898. “The Delphian Hymn to Apollo.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, 55-60.
Gosling, Anne. 1992. “Political Apollo: From Callimachus to the Augustans.” Mnemosyne, 501-512.
O’Neill Jr., Eugene. 1939. “The Importance of Final Syllables in Greek Verse.” TAPA LXX, 256-294.
O’Neill Jr., Eugene.. 1942. “The Localization of Metrical Word-Types in the Greek Hexameter.” Yale Classical Studies, 103-178.November 18, 2016 at 11:10 am #558
I still very much like this focused approach to a larger question. If you can solve the specific question, you may be able to make some more general conclusions about Callimachus’ method of composition.
I do have some editorial suggestions that would be more appropriate to share outside the forum. I can send those to you via e-mail, if you’d like. Please contact me at email@example.com, and I’ll be glad to send them on.
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